Ibn Al-Jawzee, may Allaah have mercy upon him, said in his book: Akhbaar Al-Hamqaa wal-Mughaffileen (Narrations regarding the Foolish and Heedless):
“The idiot is known by six characteristics:
- Becoming angry over nothing.
- Giving to one who should not be given to.
- Speaking regarding that which is of no benefit.
- Trusting everyone.
- Spreading secrets and not differentiating (in that) between his friend and his enemy.
- Speaking about whatever comes to his heart whilst believing that he is the most intelligent of the people.”
Ibn Al-Jawzee said: From the characteristics of the idiot is to be pleased with a lie if it is in praise of him and loving to be honoured even if he does not deserve that.
Ibn Aboo Zayd said: “My father said to me: ‘My son, cling to the intelligent people and sit with them; and avoid the foolish people.
For I have never sat with a fool and then departed except that I found deficiency in my intellect afterwards.'”
Al-Ahnaf ibn Qays said: Khaleel ibn Ahmad said: “The people are of four types:
- A man who knows, and knows that he knows. This is the scholar, so take from him.
- A man who knows, but doesn’t know that he knows. This one has forgotten, so remind him.
- A man who doesn’t know, and knows that he doesn’t know. This one is a student, so teach him.
- A man who doesn’t know, and doesn’t know that he doesn’t know. This one is an idiot, so reject him.”
Bishr ibn Al-Haarith said: “To look at an idiot burns the eyes.”